Many of these terms appear in the Jargon buster (for a more visual representation)
Article Processing Charge (APC)
An APC is a fee paid to the publisher to make an article free at point of access. Whilst Open Access principles promote free availability of research and scholarly output, research papers are not cost free to produce. The cost of publication is moved from the reader (via subscriptions and pay-walls) to the author (via the APC).
Author Accepted Manuscript (AAM)
The term used to describe a researchers raw manuscript, after peer review but before publisher formatting see https://openaccessbutton.org/direct2aam for how to locate your AAM
Creative Commons licence (CC BY, CC BY-NC, CC BY-NC-ND)
Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org) is a non-profit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others within the framework of national copyright laws. The Creative Commons suite of free copyright licenses provides a simple, standardized way to give users permission to share and use creative and scholarly work. For an overview of the creative commons licences please see their website.
- Attribution CC BY: You can share, copy, distribute, transmit, remix a work for commercial purposes as long as you attribute (cite) the work.
- Attribution CC BY-NC: You can share, copy, distribute, transmit, remix a work for non-commercial purposes as long as you attribute the work.
- Attribution CC BY-NC-ND: You can download and share a work with others as long as you attribute the work. The work can’t be changed in anyway or be used commercially.
Some publishers only permit green OA after an embargo period – for more information please see our resource page.
Gold OAA publication route (or ‘type’) of open access learn more in our resources page.
Green OAA publication route (or ‘type’) of open access learn more in our resource page.
Hybrid journalA variation on open access journals is the hybrid open access journal learn more in our resources page.
Immediate Deposit/Optional Access (ID/OA)IMMEDIATE DEPOSIT: A copy of the final peer reviewed accepted version of the article (conference paper or other item) is deposited in ORA at the time of final submission to the journal (or other publisher)OPTIONAL ACCESS: Access to the full text is applied at the point of deposit to open access wherever possible: otherwise the item is embargoed in compliance with publisher’s permissions (or other reason), with a date given when the item will be freely available, or embargoed indefinitely.The benefits of ID/OA are:
- A copy is preserved locally for the long-term
- Access can be granted as required
- The author doesn’t have to remember to deposit the item after a publisher embargo period
- A record of the item is made available at the earliest opportunity resulting in early visibility – much earlier than in bibliographic databases and in many journals
- The item CAN be made freely available at the earliest opportunity for the widest possible dissemination
Open AccessOpen Access is “unrestricted, online access to peer reviewed and published scholarly research papers where a user must be able to do the following free of any publisher-imposed access charge:
• Read published research in an electronic format.
• Search for and re-use (including download) the content of published research papers subject to proper attribution (RCUK’s definition)
Learn more in our resource page.
Open access archiveOA archives or repositories do not perform peer review, but simply make their content freely available to the world. They may contain unrefereed preprints, refereed postprints, or both. Archives may belong to institutions, such as universities and laboratories, or disciplines, such as physics and economics. Authors may archive their preprints without anyone else’s permission, and a majority of journals already permit authors to archive their postprints.
Open access journalOA journals perform peer review and then make the approved contents freely available to the world. Their expenses consist of peer review, manuscript preparation, and server space. OA journals pay their bills very much the way broadcast television and radio stations do: those with an interest in disseminating the content pay the production costs upfront so that access can be free of charge for everyone with the right equipment. Sometimes this means that journals have a subsidy from the hosting university or professional society. Sometimes it means that journals charge a processing fee on accepted articles, to be paid by the author or the author’s sponsor (employer, funding agency). OA journals that charge processing fees usually waive them in cases of economic hardship. OA journals with institutional subsidies tend to charge no processing fees.
Oxford University Research Archive (ORA)
ORA is Oxford’s institutional repository. It was set up in 2007 and contains research publications and other research output produced by members of the University of Oxford. Content includes copies of journal articles, conference papers, working papers, theses, reports and other types of scholarly research publications. The full text of many of these items is freely available. Members of the University of Oxford may deposit items in ORA.
Version of Record (VoR)
The term used to describe the published version of research, after peer review and publisher formatting.