|Open Access (OA)||Open Access is “unrestricted, online access to peer reviewed and published scholarly research papers where a user must be able to do the following free of any publisher-imposed access charge:
|Green OA||Green OA is where a paper is stored in an online open repository other than the publisher’s system. This can be an institutional repository, or one designated by the funder of the research eg. Europe PubMed Central. Note: The version of the paper released as green OA is normally the accepted manuscript: i.e. the paper as accepted for publication, including all changes resulting from peer review, but not necessarily incorporating the publisher’s formatting or layout.|
|Gold OA||Gold OA is where a paper is published immediately as OA in an online journal and is therefore stored in the publisher’s system.
Key points to note:
|Embargo Period||Some publishers only permit green OA after an embargo period. RCUK policy accepts a maximum embargo period of 6 months in STEM subjects, and 12 months in Humanities and Social Science disciplines.
The embargo period starts from the date of publication.
|Article Processing Charge (APC)||An APC is a fee paid to the publisher to make an article free at point of access. Whilst Open Access principles promote free availability of research and scholarly output, research papers are not cost free to produce. The cost of publication is moved from the reader (via subscriptions and pay-walls) to the author (via the APC). Note: if your funding body is paying the APC, they normally require the article to have a CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution) licence.|
|ORA (Oxford University Research Archive)||ORA is Oxford’s institutional repository. It was set up in 2007 and contains research publications and other research output produced by members of the University of Oxford. Content includes copies of journal articles, conference papers, working papers, theses, reports and other types of scholarly research publications. The full text of many of these items is freely available. Members of the University of Oxford may deposit items in ORA.|
|OA Archive (‘green’ route)||OA archives or repositories do not perform peer review, but simply make their content freely available to the world. They may contain unrefereed preprints, refereed postprints, or both. Archives may belong to institutions, such as universities and laboratories, or disciplines, such as physics and economics. Authors may archive their preprints without anyone else’s permission, and a majority of journals already permit authors to archive their postprints.(1)|
|OA journals (‘gold’ route)||OA journals perform peer review and then make the approved contents freely available to the world. Their expenses consist of peer review, manuscript preparation, and server space. OA journals pay their bills very much the way broadcast television and radio stations do: those with an interest in disseminating the content pay the production costs upfront so that access can be free of charge for everyone with the right equipment. Sometimes this means that journals have a subsidy from the hosting university or professional society. Sometimes it means that journals charge a processing fee on accepted articles, to be paid by the author or the author’s sponsor (employer, funding agency). OA journals that charge processing fees usually waive them in cases of economic hardship. OA journals with institutional subsidies tend to charge no processing fees.|
|Hybrid journal||A variation on open access journals is the hybrid open access journal. This refers to a subscription journal with a paid OA option, where articles are published open access on payment of an APC (article processing charge) to the publisher.|
|Double-dipping||Double-dipping describes the situation where a journal charges an APC on top of its normal subscription fee if an author wishes to make their particular article OA. In effect, the institution is paying twice.|
|Creative Commons||Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org) is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others within the framework of national copyright laws. The Creative Commons suite of free copyright licenses provides a simple, standardized way to give users permission to share and use creative and scholarly work. There is a useful JISC OAPEN-UK guide to Creative Commons here.|
|Attribution CC-BY: You can share, copy, distribute, transmit, remix a work for commercial purposes as long as you attribute (cite) the work. Note: if your funding body is paying an APC, they normally require the article to have a CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution) licence.
Attribution CC-BY-NC: You can share, copy, distribute, transmit, remix a work for non-commercial purposes as long as you attribute the work.
Attribution CC-BY-NC-ND: You can download and share a work with others as long as you attribute the work. The work can’t be changed in anyway or be used commercially.
|Immediate Deposit/Optional Access (ID/OA)||IMMEDIATE DEPOSIT: A copy of the final peer reviewed accepted version of the article (conference paper or other item) is deposited in ORA at the time of final submission to the journal (or other publisher)OPTIONAL ACCESS: Access to the full text is applied at the point of deposit to open access wherever possible: otherwise the item is embargoed in compliance with publisher’s permissions (or other reason), with a date given when the item will be freely available, or embargoed indefinitely.The benefits of ID/OA are: